# Nature of Magnetic materials

In order to find out the various types of materials in magnetic fields and their behaviour we use the knowledge of the action of magnetic field on a current loop with a simple model of an atom

Magnetic materials are classified on the basis of presence of magnetic dipole moments in the materials.

a charged particle with angular momentum always contributes to the permanent contributions to the angular moment of an atom

1. orbital magnetic dipole moment.

2. electron spin moment.

3. Nuclear spin magnetic moment.

Orbital Magnetic dipole Moment:-

The simple atomic model is one which assumes that there is a central positive nucleus surrounded by electrons in various circular orbits.

an electron in an orbit is analogous to a small current loop and as such experiences a torque in an external magnetic field, the torque tending to align the magnetic field produced by the orbiting electron with the external magnetic field.

Thus the resulting magnetic field at any point in the material would be greater than it would be at that point when the other moments were not considered.

so there are Quantum numbers which describes the orbital state of notion of electron in an atom there are n,l and ml

n-principal Quantum number, which determines the energy of an electron.

l-Orbital Quantum number which determines the angular momentum of orbit.

ml-magnetic Quantum number which determines the component of magnetic moment along the direction of an electric field.

electron spin Magnetic Moment:-

The angular momentum of an electron is called spin of the electron. as electron is a charged particle the spin of the electron produces magnetic dipole moment because electron is spinning about it’s own axis and thus generates a magnetic dipole moment.

is the value of electron spin when we consider an atom those electrons which are in shells which are not completely filled with contribute to a magnetic moment for the atom.

Nuclear spin Magnetic Moment:-

a third contribution of the moment of an atom is caused by nuclear spin this provides a negligible effect on the overall magnetic properties of material

That is the mass of the nucleus is much larger than an electron thus the dipole moments due to nuclear spin are very small.

so the total magnetic dipole moment of an atom is nothing but the summation of all the above mentioned .

## Author: Lakshmi Prasanna Ponnala

Completed M.Tech in Digital Electronics and Communication Systems.

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