In order to find out the various types of materials in magnetic fields and their behaviour we use the knowledge of the action of magnetic field on a current loop with a simple model of an atom
Magnetic materials are classified on the basis of presence of magnetic dipole moments in the materials.
a charged particle with angular momentum always contributes to the permanent contributions to the angular moment of an atom
1. orbital magnetic dipole moment.
2. electron spin moment.
3. Nuclear spin magnetic moment.
Orbital Magnetic dipole Moment:-
The simple atomic model is one which assumes that there is a central positive nucleus surrounded by electrons in various circular orbits.
an electron in an orbit is analogous to a small current loop and as such experiences a torque in an external magnetic field, the torque tending to align the magnetic field produced by the orbiting electron with the external magnetic field.
Thus the resulting magnetic field at any point in the material would be greater than it would be at that point when the other moments were not considered.
so there are Quantum numbers which describes the orbital state of notion of electron in an atom there are n,l and ml
n-principal Quantum number, which determines the energy of an electron.
l-Orbital Quantum number which determines the angular momentum of orbit.
ml-magnetic Quantum number which determines the component of magnetic moment along the direction of an electric field.
electron spin Magnetic Moment:-
The angular momentum of an electron is called spin of the electron. as electron is a charged particle the spin of the electron produces magnetic dipole moment because electron is spinning about it’s own axis and thus generates a magnetic dipole moment.
is the value of electron spin when we consider an atom those electrons which are in shells which are not completely filled with contribute to a magnetic moment for the atom.
Nuclear spin Magnetic Moment:-
a third contribution of the moment of an atom is caused by nuclear spin this provides a negligible effect on the overall magnetic properties of material
That is the mass of the nucleus is much larger than an electron thus the dipole moments due to nuclear spin are very small.
so the total magnetic dipole moment of an atom is nothing but the summation of all the above mentioned .
The laws used in compressor of a non-uniform Quantizer are known as compression laws.
two laws are available
-law:- A particular form of compression law that is used in practice is the so called – law which is defined by
where – Normalized compressed output voltage.
– Normalized input voltage to the compressor.
and is a positive constant and its value decides the curvature of .
corresponds to no compression, which is the case of uniform quanization, the curve is almost linear as the value of increases signal compression increases.
is the north american standard for PCM voice telephony.
for a given value of , the reciprocal slope of the compression curve, which defines the quantum steps is given by the derivative of with respect to
we see that therefore law is neither strictly linear nor strictly logarithmic.
It is approximately linear at low levels of input corresponding to . and is approximately logarithmic at high input levels corresponding to .
typical value of
A-law :- another compression law that is used in practice is the so called A- law defined by
A=1 corresponds to the case of uniform Quantization. A-law has been plotted for three different values of A. A=1, A=2, A=87.56.
typical value of A is 87.56 in European Commercial PCM standard which is being followed in India.
for both the -law and A-law, the dynamic range capability of the compander improves with increasing and A respectively. The SNR for low-level signals increases at the expense of the SNR for high level signals.
to accommodate these two conflicting requirements (i.e, a reasonable SNR for both low and high-level signals), a compromise is usually made in choosing the value of parameter for the -law and parameter A for the A-law. The typical values used in practice are and .
It is also interested to note that in actual PCM systems, the companding circuitry does not produce an exact replica of the non-linear compression curves shown in the compression law characteristics.
Communications refer to sending, receiving and processing of information by electrical means, that is it means exchanging information between transmitter and receiver.
In early 1840’s the type of communication used was Wire telegraphy later on the forms are as telephony, Radio communication (possible with the invention of triode tube, Satellite communications and fibre optics(with the invention of transistors and IC’s and semi-conductor devices), that means communications become more advanced with increasing emphasis on computer and other data communications.
A modern communication system is concerned with
sorting:- sorting for the right message.
Processing:- processing is to make that message more suitable for transmission.
storing:- storing that message before transmission.
then the actual transmission of that message takes place (processing and filtering noise)
at the receiver:-
decoding:-decoding the original message.
storage:-storing a copy of that message.
interpretation:-and analyzing for the correctness of that message.
the different forms of modern communication systems includes Mobile communications,Computer communications, Radio telemetry etc.
to become familiar with communication systems one needs to know about amplifiers and oscillators that means fundamentals of electronic circuits must be known, with these concepts as a background the every day communication concepts like noise, modulation and information theory as well as various types of systems may be studied.
The most general form of Communication system ( one or two blocks may differ) is shown in the figure basic terminology used in Communication systems is message signal /information/data,channel,noise,modulation, encoding and decoding. Communication system is meant for communicating messages between Transmitter and Receiver (or) source & destination.
source or information source is the primary block in communication system which generates original message / actual message.
i.e, selecting one message (actual message) from a group of messages itself is called as sorting data (or) information. Source generates message which may be in any form like words, code , symbols, sound signal, images, videos etc.among these the desired message has been selected and conveyed.
A transducer is one which converts one form of energy into electrical energy because the message from information source may not be always in electrical form, a transducer is used in between source and transmitter as a separate block sometimes (or) may be a part of Tx r.
Txr is meant for the following tasks
restriction of range of audio frequencies (i.e, limiting the bandwidth of the message signal).
In general modulation is said to be the main function of the transmitter.
The medium that exists between transmitter and receiver is called as channel. The function of channel is to provide connection between transmitter and receiver, two types of channels are there wired/point to point and wireless/broadcasting channels.
Point to point channels are generally wired channels(i.e, a physical medium exists) like Microwave links, optical fibre links etc.
Microwave links:- these links are used in telephone transmission.In these type of links guided EM waves are used to transmit from Txr to Rxr.
optical fibre links:- used in low-loss high speed data transmission and uses optical fibers as the medium .
Broadcast channels:- the medium or channel is wireless here, in broadcasting a single transmitter can send information to many receivers simultaneously, satellite broadcasting system is one such system.
during the process of transmission and reception, the signal gets distorted due to noise in the channel, noise may interfere with the signal at any point but noise in the channel has greatest effect on the signal.
The main function of the receiver is to reproduce the message signal in electrical form from the distorted received signal. This reproduction process is called demodulation (or) detection , in general this demodulation may be assumed as the reverse process of modulation carried out in transmission.
there are a great variety of receivers in communication systems, the type of receiver chosen depends on type of modulation, operating frequency ,its range and type of destination required. Most common receiver is superheterodyne receiver .
so many types of receivers are available from a very simple crystal receiver with headphones to radar receiver etc.
Destination:- It is the final stage of any communication system. it would be a loud speaker / a display device/simply a load etc depending up on the requirement of the system.
the main concept of flooding is to sent every incoming packet on a line to every other outgoing line except the line it arrived on.
flooding generates a large no.of duplicate packets, sometimes infinite unless we may take certain measures.
the measures are as follows:-
one measure is use of hop count in the header of each packet and decrement this count at each hop when count reaches to zero discard the packet.
How to take this hop count is another problem. Generally it is set to the length of path from source to destination and in worst cases the full diameter of the subnet.
another way is avoid sending a packet more than once through a router this is possible by using sequence no.
i.e, a source router (which generates packets) can put a sequence no. to each packet and each router will maintain a list of sequence nos. and if sees a packet with same sequence no in the list that packet is discarded (not flooded).
another way of flooding is of use selective flooding.
i.e, with this the router wouldn’t send every incoming packet on every line instead the router will send packets in a particular direction only.
i.e, east bound packets are sent on east side routers and similarly on west side by west side routers.
even flooding is cumbersome, it has some uses
used in military applications.
used in distributive data base applications in which to update all data bases concurrently.
used in broadcast Routing.
flooding is used rather than any other algorithm since flooding chooses shorter path between two nodes where other algorithms may not.
Reconstruction filter (Low Pass Filter) Procedure to reconstruct actual signal from sampled signal:-
Low Pass Filter is used to recover original signal from it’s samples. This is also known as interpolation filter.
An LPF is that type of filter which passes only low frequencies up to cut-off frequency and rejects all other frequencies above cut-off frequency.
For an ideal LPF, there is a sharp change in the response at cut-off frequency as shown in the figure.
i.e, Amplitude response becomes suddenly zero at cut-off frequency which is not possible practically that means an ideal LPF is not physically realizable.
i.e, in place of an ideal LPF a practical filter is used.
In case of a practical filter, the amplitude response decreases slowly to zero (this is one of the reason why we choose )
This means that there exists a transition band in case of practical Low Pass Filter in the reconstruction of original signal from its samples.
Signal Reconstruction (Interpolation function):-
The process of reconstructing a Continuous Time signal x(t) from it’s samples is known as interpolation.
Interpolation gives either approximate (or) exact reconstruction (or) recovery of CT signal.
One of the simplest interpolation procedures is known as zero-order hold.
Another procedure is linear interpolation. In linear interpolation the adjacent samples (or) sample points are connected by straight lines.
We may also use higher order interpolation formula for reconstructing the CT signal from its sample values.
If we use the above process (Higher order interpolation) the sample points are connected by higher order polynomials (or) other mathematical functions.
For a Band limited signal, if the sampling instants are sufficiently large then the signal may be reconstructed exactly by using a LPF.
In this case an exact interpolation can be carried out between sample points.
A Band limited signal x(t) can be reconstructed completely from its samples, which has higher frequency component fm Hz.
If we pass the sampled signal through a LPF having cut-off frequency of fm Hz.
From sampling theorem
g(t) has a multiplication factor . To reconstruct x(t) (or) X(f) , the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal LPF of Band Width of Hz and gain .
If sampling is done at Nyquist rate , then Nyquist interval is .
h(t) = 0. at all Nyquist instants , when g(t) is applied at the input to this filter the output will be x(t) .
Each sample in g(t) results a sinc pulse having amplitude equal to the strength of sample. If we add all these sinc pulses that gives the original signal x(t) .
This is known as interpolation formula
It is assumed that the signal x(t) is strictly band limited but in general an information signal may contain a wide range of frequencies and can not be strictly band limited this means that the maximum frequency in the signal can not be predictable.
then it is not possible to select suitable sampling frequency fs .
A Circuit Switched N/w consists of a set of switches connected by physical links.
A connection b/w ‘2’ stations is dedicated path made of one (or) more links. Each connection uses only one dedicated channel on each link.
i.e, each link is divided into n channels either by using TDM (or) FDM.
This circuit consists of 4 switches I, II, III and IV and Multiplexers with n=’3′ channels and one link.
In some circuits Multiplexing can be implicitly included in the switch fabric it self. In this circuit the end systems are connected to a switch for simplicity consider ‘2’ end systems A and M, connected to the switches I and III.
when A needs to communicate with M . A needs to request to a connection to M, which must be accepted by all switches and by M it self- which is called setup phase.
a channel circuit is reserved on each link and the combination of circuits forms a dedicated path. After establishing path data transfer can take place. The next phase is tear down.
i.e, after all data have been transferred. Generally circuit-switching takes place at the physical layer.
Before Communication (starting), the stations must make reservation for the resources like channels, switch buffers switch i/o ports switch processing time and are dedicated during the entire duration of data transfer until the tear down phase.
Data transferred is not packatized that is data is send as a continuous flow b/w source and destination.
there is end-to-end addressing in setup phase.
The 3 phases involved are:-
Circuit switched N/w’s requires ‘3’ setup phases
A dedicated circuit is established before the ‘2’ communicating parties talk to each other.
i.e, creating a dedicated channels b/w switches. To communicate A with M . initially a requesting process as follows
A to I, I to IV and IV to III, III to M and an acknowledgement in the reverse order after the reception of ‘ack’ a connection is established.
Data Transfer Phase:-
In this phase data transfer occurs b/w the ‘2’ devices.
Tear down phase:-
To disconnect , a signal is sent to each switch to release the resources by any one of station.
Efficiency of Circuit Switched Network:-
These are less efficient in terms of allocated resources. Since all the resources are allocated during the entire duration of the connection and these resources are un available to other connections.
Delay in this type of N/w’s is due to establishment of connection , data transfer and disconnecting the circuit.
Switching at the physical layer in the traditional telephone N/w uses the circuit switching approach.
In some applications hosts need to send messages to many (or) all other hosts like weather reports, stock market updates (or) live radio programs.
i.e, sending a packet to all destinations simultaneously is called Broadcasting.
Different methods of Broadcasting:-
first method is to send a packet to all destinations. This is a method wasteful of Band width and source needs to know the complete list of all destinations.
so this is least desirable one.
flooding is another way to broadcast a packet, the problem with flooding is that it generates too many packets and also consumes too much of Band width.
Third way is to use multi destination routing
In this technique each packet contains a list of destinations (or) a bit map for those destinations.
when a packet arrives at a router, the router checks all the output lines it requires. The router generates a new copy of the packet for each output line after sufficient number of hops each packet will carry only one destination.
i.e, multi destination routing is like separately addressed packets (to B,C,D,E & D) must follow the same route one of them pays full fare and rest are free.
The fourth type of method is to use sink tree (or) spanning tree.
A spanning tree is a subset of subnet that includes all the routers but contains no loops.
if each router knows which of it’s lines belong to spinning tree then it broadcasts packet to all the lines except the one it arrived on.
This is efficient method in terms of Band width usage but problem is to maintain the knowledge of all the nodes of spanning tree at a routes.
Last method is to use Reverse path forwarding to approximate behavior of spanning tree.
Consider a subnet and it’s sink tree for router I as root node and how reverse path algorithm works in figure (C)
on the first hop I sends packets to F, H, J & N. on the second hop eight packets are generated among them 5 are given to preferred paths indicated as circles (A,D,G,O,M)
of the 6 packets generated in third hop only 3 are given to preferred paths (C,E & K) the others are duplicates.
in the fourth hop to B and L after this broadcasting terminates.
advantages of reverse path forwarding:-
it is easy to implement.
it does not require routers to known about spanning trees.
it does not require any special mechanism to stop the process (as like flooding).
The principle is: if a packet arrives on a line if it is preferred one to reach the source it gets forwarded.
if it arrives on a line that is not preferred one that packet is discarded as a duplicate.
when a packet arrives at ‘L’ the preferred paths are N and P so it forwards the packets to both N and P and if a packet arrives at ‘K’, there the preferred path is M, and N is not preferred so it forwards the packet to M and discards to N.