OSI reference model

The OSI model is based on ISO and is introduced in the year 1983 and was revised in 1995 .

This is also known as ISO-OSI model(International Standards Organization-Open System Interconnection model)

and is used to connect open systems(open- they are ready for communication)

The OSI model has 7 layers. These layers are formed by considering the following things

  1.  A layer should be created where a different abstraction is required.
  2. Each layer should perform a well defined function.
  3. A layer  boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interface.
  4. The function of each layer chosen by keeping an eye toward defining international standardized protocols.
  5. The no.of layers chosen  that same function is not performed in the each layer and the function performed is not so small.

Now the model looks like this

Physical layer:-

Physical layer is connected with 

  • Transmitting raw bits over a communication channel.
  • i.e, the design issue makes sure that sending ‘1’  must be received as ‘1’ itself  but not as ‘0’.
  • How many volts is required to represent 1 and 0?
  • How many Nano Seconds a bit lasts?
  • whether transmission may proceed in both the directions (or) uni-directional and how the initial connection is established?
  • whether to terminate the connection (or) not?
  • i.e, most of the design issues deal with mechanical, electrical and timing interfaces & the physical transmission medium.

 At physical layer  the data rate, synchronization of bits, line configuration(point-to-point,Broadcasting) and the topology used and Transmission mode( simplex/duplex) are specified.

Data Link Layer:-

It gets services from physical layer and offers services to the N/w layer.

The DLL makes the raw transmission as reliable and is responsible for node to node delivery . It makes physical layer appears error free to the upper layer.

the main functions of DLL are:

Framing:- The DLL divides the stream of bits received from N/w layer into manageable data units called frames.

Physical addressing:- If frames are distributed to different systems on the N/w , DLL adds header to the frame to define physical address of sender and receiver of the frame.

Flow control:- DLL also keep a fast Transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. therefore it requires a mechanism for controlling the flow to prevent overwhelming of the receiver.

Error control:-

DLL provides a mechanism to 

  • detect damaged (or) lost frames and to re transmit this damaged (or) lost frames.
  • and needs a mechanism to prevent duplication of frames. error control is normally achieved through a trailer added at the end of the frame.
  • it accepts data from N/w layer and break up that data into data frames and transmit the frames sequentially. If transmission is reliable it is observed by acknowledgement frame.
  • MAC layer in DLL takes care of how to share channel and control the access in case of broad casting used for end-to-end (or) node-to-node delivery.

Network Layer:-

It controls the operation of subnet. The processes involved in N/w layer are


Author: vikramarka

Completed M.Tech in Digital Electronics and Communication Systems and currently working as a faculty.