# Input and Output characteristics of transistor in Common Base Configuration

Input Characteristics:-

Input characteristics in Common Base configuration means input voltage Vs input current by keeping output voltage  as constant.

i.e, $V_{EB}$ Vs $I_{E}$ by keeping $V_{CB}$ constant.

Therefore the curve between Emitter current $I_{E}$ and Emitter to Base voltage $V_{EB}$ for a given value of Collector to Base voltage $V_{CB}$ represents input characteristic.

for a given output voltage  $V_{CB}$, the input circuit acts as a PN-junction diode under Forward Bias.

from the curves there exists a cut-in (or) offset (or) threshold voltage $V_{EB}$ below which the emitter current is very small  and a  substantial amount of Emitter-current flows after cut-in voltage ( 0.7 V for Si and 0.3 V for Ge).

the emitter current $I_{E}$ increases rapidly with the small increase in $V_{EB}$. with the low dynamic input resistance of a transistor.

i.e, $r_{i}&space;=\frac{\Delta&space;V_{EB}}{\Delta&space;I_{E}}|_{V_{CB}\approx&space;Constant}$

$input&space;resistance&space;=\frac{change&space;in&space;input&space;voltage}{change&space;in&space;emitter&space;current}|V_{CB}{\approx&space;Constant}$

This is calculated by measuring the slope of the input characteristic.

i.e, input characteristic determines the input resistance $r_{i}$.

The value of $r_{i}$ varies from point to point on the Non-linear portion of the characteristic and is about $100\Omega$ in the linear region.

Output Characteristics:-

Output Characteristics are in between output current Vs output voltage with input current as kept constant.

i.e, $f(I_{c},V_{CE})_{I_{E}&space;=&space;Constant}$

i.e, O/p characteristics are in between $V_{CB}$ Vs $I_{c}$ by keeping $I_{E}$ as constant.

basically it has 4 regions of operation Active region, saturation region,cut-off region and reach-through region.

active region:-

from the active region of operation $I_{c}$ is almost independent of $I_{E}$

i.e, $I_{c}\approx&space;I_{E}$

when $V_{CB}$ increases, there is very small increase in $I_{c}$ .

This is because the increase in $V_{CB}$ expands the collector-base depletion region and shortens the distance between the two depletion regions.

with $I_{E}$ kept constant the increase in $I_{c}$ is so small. transistor operates in it’s normal operation mode in this region.

saturation region:-

here both junctions are Forward Biased.

Collector current $I_{c}$ flows even when $V_{CB}=0$(left of origin)  and this current reaches to zero when $V_{CB}$ is increased negatively.

cut-off region:-

the region below the curve $I_{E}=0$ ,transistor operates in this region  when  the two junctions are Reverse Biased.

$I_{c}\neq&space;0$ even though $I_{E}=0$ mA.  this is because of collector leakage current (or) reverse-saturation current $I_{CO}$ (or) $I_{CBO}$.

punch through/reach through region:-

$I_{c}$ is practically independent of $V_{CB}$ over certain transistor operating region of the transistor.

• If $V_{CB}$ is increased beyond a certain value, $I_{c}$ eventually increases rapidly because of avalanche (or) zener effects (or) both this condition is known as punch through (or) reach through region.
• If transistor is operated beyond the specified output voltage ($V_{CB}$) transistor breakdown occurs.
• If $V_{CB}$ is increased beyond certain limit, the depletion region($J_{c}$) of o/p junction penetrates into the base until it makes contact with emitter-base depletion region. we call this condition as punch-through (or) reach-through effect.
• In this region , the large collector current destroys the transistor.
• To avoid this $V_{CB}$ should be kept in safe limits specified by the manufacturer

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