Drift and Diffusion currents

The flow of charge (or) current through a semi conductor material is of two types. Similarly the net current that flows through a PN diode is also of two types (i) Drift current and  (ii) Diffusion current.

Drift current:-

When an Electric field is applied across the semi conductor, the charge carriers attains certain velocity known as drift velocity v_{d}= \mu E with this velocity electrons move towards positive terminal and holes move towards negative terminal of the battery. This movement of charge carriers constitutes a current known as ‘Drift current’.

Drift current is defined as the flow of electric current due to the motion of the charge carriers under the influence of an external field.

Drift current density due to free electrons J_{n} = qn\mu _{n}E atoms/Cm2  and the Drift current density due to free holes J_{p} = qp\mu _{p}E atoms/Cm2.

The current densities are perpendicular to the direction of current flow.

Diffusion Current:-

It is possible for an electric current to flow in a semi conductor even in the absence of the applied Electric field (or) voltage provided there exists a concentration gradient.

concentration gradient exists if the number of electrons (or) holes is greater in one region than other region in a semi conductors.

Now the charge carriers move from higher concentration to that lower concentration of same type charged regions.

The  resulting current is known as diffusion current.

Diffusion current density (J_{P}) due to holes is  J_{p} = -q D_{p}\frac{dp}{dx}    A/Cm2 .

Diffusion current density (J_{P}) due to holes is J_{n} = q D_{n}\frac{dn}{dx}    A/Cm2 .

\therefore Total current in a semi-conductor is the sum of drift and diffusion currents

In P-type total current density is J= qp\mu _{p} E-qD_{p}\frac{dp}{dx} .

In N-type total current density is J= qn\mu _{n} E+qD_{n}\frac{dn}{dx}.

 

 

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Author: Lakshmi Prasanna Ponnala

Completed M.Tech in Digital Electronics and Communication Systems and currently working as a faculty.