The diode under Forward bias is as follows
The current equation related to the voltage V and current I is given by
I- Diode current
Io– Reverse saturation current of the diode at room temperature.
V-applied External voltage
– constant = 1 For Ge
= 2 For Si.
– volt equivalent temperature 26 mV at room temp.
where k-Boltzmann constant = 1.38 X 10-23 J/K.
T-Temperature of Diode in kelvin oK = o C + 273.
q- charge of electron = 1.6X10-19 C.
Reverse Saturation Current (Io) of PN-Diode:-