Current components of a PNP Transistor

The various Current components which flow across a PNP Transistor are as shown in the figure.

For Normal operation 

  • Emitter Junction J_{E} is Forward Biased.
  • collector Junction J_{C} is Reverse Biased.

The current flows into Emitter is Emitter current I_{E},  I_{E} = I_{hE}+I_{eE}.

This current consists of two components

  • I_{hE} or I_{pE}– Current due to majority carriers(holes).
  • I_{eE}  or I_{nE}– Current due to minority carriers(electrons).

since I_{eE} is very small I_{E} \simeq I_{hE}-----------Equation(1)

All the holes crossing the Emitter junction J_{E} do not reach the Collector junction because some of them combine with the electrons in the N-type Base.

I_{hC} – is the hole current in the Collector.

∴ Base current = Total hole current in Emitter – hole current in Collector.

i.e, I_{B} = I_{hE}-I_{hC}----------------Equation(2).

If emitter were open circuited I_{E} = 0 Amperes which implies  I_{E} = I_{hE} from Equation(1) I_{hE}\approx 0 Amperes.

Under these conditions, Base-Collector junction acts as Reverse-Biased Diode and gives rise to a small reverse-Saturation current known as I_{CO}.

when I_{E} \neq 0  , Total Collector current  I_{C} is the sum of current due to holes in the Collector and Reverse Saturation current I_{CO}.

i.e, I_{C} = I_{hC}+I_{CO}.

i.e, In a PNP Transistor I_{CO} consists of holes moving across J_{C} (from Base to Collector) that is I_{hCO} and electrons crossing the junction J_{C} (from Collector to Base) constitutes I_{eCO}.

I_{CO} = I_{hCO}+I_{eCO}

i.e, I_{E} = 0  \Rightarrow I_{C} = I_{CO} only

when I_{E} \neq 0 \Rightarrow I_{C} = I_{hC}+I_{CO}.

\therefore Total current in the transistor is given by  I_{E} = I_{B}+I_{C}.

\therefore The general expression for Collector current is I_{C} = \alpha I_{E}+I_{CO}

I_{C} =\frac{\alpha }{(1-\alpha )} I_{B}+\frac{1}{(1-\alpha )}I_{CO}.



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Author: Lakshmi Prasanna

Completed M.Tech in Digital Electronics and Communication Systems and currently working as a faculty.