Sampling of signals is the fundamental operation in signal processing, a Continuous Time (CT) signal can be converted into a Discrete Time (DT) signal using Sampling process. Sampling is required since the advancement in both signals and systems which are digitized i.e, Digital systems operates only on digital signals only.

**Sampling Theorem:-**

A CT signal is first converted into DT signal by Sampling process. The sufficient number of samples must be taken so that the original signal is represented in it’s samples completely, and also the signal is represented from it’s samples, these two conditions representation and reconstruction depends on the sampling process ‘f_{s}‘ Hz.

Sampling theorem can be given into two parts

i. A band limited signal of finite energy, which has no frequency component higher than ‘f_{m}‘ Hz, is completely described by it’s sample values at uniform intervals less than (or) equal to 1/2f_{m} seconds apart.

i.e, Seconds.

ii. A Band limited signal of finite energy, which has no frequency component higher than f_{m} Hz may be completely recovered from the knowledge of it’s samples if samples are taken at the rate of 2f_{m} samples/second.

i.e, Hz.

Statement:- A Continuous Time signal can be completely represented in it’s samples and recovered from it’s samples if the sampling frequency

where is the sampling frequency.

is the highest frequency present in the original signal / Band width of the signal.

**proof of Sampling theorem:-**

Let us consider a CT signal x(t), which is a band limited to Hz as shown

To prove Sampling theorem, it should be shown a signal whose spectrum is band limited to f_{m} Hz can be reconstructed exactly without any error from it’s samples taken uniformly at a rate of Hz.

The circuit shows the sampler

Now sampling of x(t) at a rate of f_{s} may be achieved by multiplying x(t) with a train of impulses with a period ‘T_{s}‘ seconds.

The sampling signal is an ideal (or) instantaneous signal. This is also known as ideal (or) instantaneous sampling.

As is a periodic impulse train it can be expressed in it’s Fourier Series expansion as follows

Exponential Fourier Series is

∴ Exponential Fourier Series is

now the sampled signal

By finding Fourier Transform of g(t) is G(f)

Now the frequency spectrum of the sampled signal G(f) is of the form

From G(f) spectrum the original spectrum of X(f) has been shifted to different center frequencies

i.e, when n=0 center frequency is 0.

n=1 center frequency is f_{s}

n=-1 center frequency is -f_{s} etc

Some important conclusions from frequency spectrum of sampled signal:-

- The spectrum of sampled signal G(f)/G(w) will repeat periodically if without any overlapping.
- G(f) is extending up to infinity and the Band width is infinity as well, out of G(f) , X(f) need to be recovered , which is band limited to f
_{m}Hz. - X(f) is centered at f=0 and has f
_{m}as the highest frequency, X(f) may be recovered by passing it through a Loe Pass filter with cutoff frequency approximately equals to f_{m}Hz. - to reconstruct x(t) from g(t) the condition that must be satisfied is .